[Once the women of Paris' Third Estate arrived at Palace of Versailles they began to clamour for the queen, Marie Antoinette, to appear. She did appear, at first with her two children Marie-Thérèse and younger brother Louis-Charles, then later stood alone on a balcony with muskets and cannon pointed at her for ten minutes, until her husband agreed to move the Royal Family back to the Tuileries Palace. The queen's stoic demeanour throughout, it is said, likely prevented a far worse tragedy from occurring.]
610 CE - Byzantine Emperor Heraclius was crowned.
869 CE - The Fourth Council of Constantinople was convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople.
1550 - Pedro de Valdivia founded the city of Concepción, Chile.
1789 - During the French Revolution Parisian women undertook a march on Versailles to confront King Louis XVI about his refusal to promulgate decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his entire court returned to Paris.
1877 - Chief Joseph surrendered his Nez Perce band to General Nelson A. Miles.
1886 - The South African city of Johannesburg was established after gold was discovered nearby; today it is Africa's only global city, and the richest metropolitan district in Africa.
1903 - Sir Samuel Griffith was appointed the first Chief Justice of Australia, and Sir Edmund Barton and Richard O'Connor were appointed as foundation justices.
1910 - Portugal abolished the monarchy of Manuel II and established the First Republic, which held until a coup in May 1926; during the period of chaos which followed, the Estado Novo and - after 1933 - the Ditadura Nacional were established under António de Oliveira Salazar.
1945 - A six month strike by Hollywood set decorators turned into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Bros. studios on what came to be known as Hollywood Black Friday.
1947 - President Harry S Truman delivered the first televised national address from the White House, apparently.
1968 - A civil rights march in the Northern Ireland city of Londonderry ended in violence.
1969 - The first episode of the famous comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus aired on BBC.
1970 - PBS became a network.
1974 - The Guildford pub bombing, carried out by the IRA, left 5 dead and 65 injured.
1984 - Marc Garneau became the first Canadian in space, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger.
1988 - The Chilean opposition coalition Concertación (center-left) defeated Augusto Pinochet in his re-election intentions.
1993 - On the final day of the Russian Constitutional Crisis, tanks bombarded Moscow's White House, a government building housing the Russian parliament, while demonstrators against President Boris Yeltsin rallied outside.
1999 - West London's Ladbroke Grove rail crash killed 31 people.
2000 - Mass demonstrations in Belgrade - now called the Bulldozer Revolution - forced the resignation of Slobodan Milošević.
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