[This now-iconic image of Cosette from the musical Les Miserables was originally made by Émile Bayard for Victor Hugo's 1862 novel Les Misérables, and later adapted - to spectacular effect - for the poster.]
451 CE - At Chalcedon - a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor now considered to be part of Istanbul- the first session of the Council of Chalcedon began; called by Pope Leo I, the Council ended on November 1st after a whole lot of hoo-hah about what did or did not constitute heresy resulted is a schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
1075 - Dmitar Zvonimir was crowned King of Croatia at the Basilica of Saint Peter and Moses in Solin.
1480 - The so-called Great Standing on the Ugra River - a confrontation between the forces of Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Russia's Grand Duke Ivan III - resulted in the retreat of the Tataro-Mongols and eventual disintegration of the Horde.
1600 - San Marino adopted the constitution it still uses, which is the oldest constitution still in use in the world.
1821 - The government of general José de San Martín established the Peruvian Navy.
1856 - The Second Opium War between several western powers and China began with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River.
1895 - Queen Min, the last Empress of Korea, was assassinated at Gyeongbok Palace in what has come to be known as the Eulmi Incident; she has latterly been hailed as a heroine for her defense of Korean autonomy.
1912 - The First Balkan War began when Montenegro declared war against Turkey.
1932 - The Indian Air Force was established.
1944 - The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet debuted on CBS radio. In the middle of the 1949 season the show switched to NBC's Blue Network, which later became ABC radio. In October 1952 the show transferred to ABC-TV, where it ran for fourteen seasons, spending a total of 22 years entertaining American audiences by the time it went off the air in September 1966.
1952 - The Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash killed 112 people.
1956 - Don Larsen of the New York Yankees pitched the only perfect game in World Series history, during Game 5 against the Brooklyn Dodgers.
1957 - Team owner Walter O'Malley announced that the Brooklyn Dodgers would be moving to Los Angeles, apparently.
1967 - Che Guevara was captured in Bolivia; he was executed the next day by Mario Terán.
1974 - The Franklin National Bank collapsed due to fraud and mismanagement; at the time it was the largest bank failure in US history.
1978 - Australia's Ken Warby set the current world water speed record of 511.13 kph (317.60 mph) on board the Spirit of Australia at Blowering Dam.
1982 - Poland banned Solidarity, apparently.
1985 - Cameron Mackintosh's English-language version of Les Misérables had its world debut in London at the Barbican Arts Centre; the show transferred to the Palace Theatre in December 1985, and again to the Queen's Theatre in April 2004, where it is still playing.
2001 - US President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security, to be headed by former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge.
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