[The Siege of Acre was the first engagement of the Third Crusade, which devastated Europe's aristocracy by pitting the good Christians of Europe - who came to the defense of the Kingdom of Jerusalem on the orders of Pope Gregory VIII and his successor Clement III - against Saladin.]
331 BCE - At the Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander the Great defeated Darius III.
1189 - Gerard de Ridefort - grandmaster of the Knights Templar since 1184 - was killed at the Siege of Acre.
1829 - South African College was founded in Cape Town; it was later separated into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
1894 - Cape Town's Owl Club held its first meeting.
1936 - Francisco Franco's rise to power at the helm of the Nationalists was nearly complete when he was named Generalísimo of the National army and Jefe del Estado (Head of State); following the end of the Spanish Civil War in April 1939 he served as Spain's dictator until his death in November 1975.
1938 - Nazi Germany
1939 - After the month-long Siege of Warsaw, Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht occupied the city.
1946 - The opening round of the Nuremburg Trials closed; 24 prominent surviving Nazis were tried, four of whom were acquitted and 1 of whom committed suicide before the trial opened.
1949 - The People's Republic of China was proclaimed by Mao Zedong.
1960 - Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom.
1961 - Following a truly bewildering colonial past which saw it passed between Germany, France, and the United Kingdom from 1884 onwards, East and West Cameroon merged as the Federal Republic of Cameroon and finally attained its independence from all of them.
1964 - The Shinkansen bullet train service began between Tokyo and Osaka.
1965 - Indonesia's General Suharto crushed a coup attempt aimed at unseating President Sukarno; millions of Indonesians were killed in its aftermath, which included the liquidation of the Communist Party. Suharto's real motive, however, appears to have been a plot to seize power for himself, which he did in 1967.
1969 - Concorde broke the sound barrier for the first time.
1975 - At a fight dubbed the Thrilla in Manila Joe Frazier was defeated by Muhammad Ali in the 14th round; despite trash-talking prior to the fight, Ali was magnanimous in victory, praising Frazier for 'bringing out the best' in him.
1978 - Tuvalu gained its independence from the United Kingdom.
1982 - Sony launched the first CD player designed for the consumer market.
1991 - New Zealand's Resource Management Act went into effect.
2005 - 23 died and 129 were injured by suicide bombers in Bali.
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