[For years the Kray Twins terrorized the hard men of London's gangland, until such time as they began to feel they were above the law; from there it was a short while til a long fall brought Ronnie and Reggie under the law again.]
437 CE - Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III married Licinia Eudoxia - daughter of his cousin Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor - in Constantinople, thus unifying the two branches of the House of Theodosius.
1268 - Conradin - the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors - was publicly executed along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden by Sicily's King Charles I, a political rival and ally to the Roman Catholic church. The 16-year-old Conrad and 19-year-old Frederick were executed for having fallen in love...
1618 - Adventurer, writer, courtier, and former favourite of Elizabeth I, Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James VI & I of Scotland and England.
1787 - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera Don Giovanni was first performed, at the Estates Theatre in Prague.
1792 - Oregon's Mount Hood was named after the British naval officer Alexander Arthur Hood by Lt. William E. Broughton who spotted the mountain near the mouth of the Willamette River.
1901 - Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of US President William McKinley, was executed by electrocution at Auburn Prison in Upstate New York.
1923 - Under the terms of the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey became a republic following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, with its capital at Ankara.
1929 - The New York Stock Exchange crashed for the second time in a week on 'Black Tuesday' in what would soon be called the Crash of '29, ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.
1956 - Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula and pushed Egyptian forces back toward the Suez Canal, precipitating the Suez Crisis.
1960 - In Louisville, Kentucky, local fighter Cassius Clay - who later took the name Muhammad Ali - won his first professional fight.
1967 - London criminal Jack 'The Hat' McVitie was murdered by the Kray Twins, leading to their eventual imprisonment and downfall.
1969 - The first-ever computer-to-computer link was established on ARPANET, and the Internet was born.
1989 - After years of delays, the 63rd Street Tunnel opened for service, the first expansion of the New York City subway system since 1967.
1991 - The American Galileo spacecraft made its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, making it the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1992 - The Food and Drug Administration approved Depo Provera for use as a contraceptive in the United States.
1994 - Francisco Martin Duran fired over two dozen shots at the White House; Duran was later convicted of trying to kill US President Bill Clinton.
1998 - The Space Shuttle Discovery blasted off on mission STS-95 with 77-year-old John Glenn aboard, making him the oldest person to go into space; previously, he had been the first American to orbit the Earth in February 1962, and later a Senator (D-Ohio).
1998 - Hurricane Mitch, the second deadliest Atlantic hurricane in history, made landfall in Honduras.
2005 - Three bombs directed at the transit system of Delhi killed more than 60 and injured nearly 200.
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