1841 - Queen's University was founded in Kingston, Ontario.
1859 - Abolitionist John Brown led an ill-fated raid on the Armory in Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
1869 - The Cardiff Giant was 'discovered' near Cardiff, New York; the petrified prehistoric man was later discovered to be a hoax, perpetrated by George Hull.
1905 - India's Partition of Bengal took place at the behest of the British viceroy, Lord Curzon.
1916 - Margaret Sanger founded Planned Parenthood.
1923 - The Walt Disney Company was founded by Walt Disney and his brother, Roy Disney.
1934 - Chinese Communists began the Long March, which ended a year and four days later, by which time Mao Zedong had regained his title as party chairman.
1940 - The Warsaw Ghetto was established.
1946 - Ten war criminals were hanged at Nuremburg, including: Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Alfred Jodl, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Alfred Rosenberg, Fritz Sauckel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and Julius Streicher. This is what's known these days as 'a good start'...
1949 - Nikolaos Zachariadis, leader of the Communist Party of Greece, announced a 'temporary cease-fire', effectively ending the Greek Civil War.
1951 - The first Prime Minister of Pakistan, Liaquat Ali Khan, was assassinated in Rawalpindi.
1962 - The Cuban Missile Crisis, which brought the world closer to the brink of nuclear annihilation than at any other time during the Cold War, began.
1968 - American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos were kicked off their team for performing a Black Power salute during a medal ceremony at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. The silver medalist, Australia's Peter Norman, wore a badge in support of them, but for obvious reasons did not perform the salute himself.
1970 - At the request of Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa and Montreal mayor Jean Drapeau, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the War Measures Act to deal with the burgeoning October Crisis.
1972 - Emmerdale - originally known as Emmerdale Farm - debuted on Britain's ITV; the show was created by Kevin Laffan.
1978 - Karol Wojtyla was elected Pope John Paul II.
1984 - Desmond Tutu was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1995 - The Million Man March converged on Washington, DC.
2002 - Cairo's Bibliotheca Alexandrina was inaugurated.
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