[The Brunswick Manifesto was not met with the fearful response that had been hoped for when it was issued, on this day in 1792 by Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick... In fact, this contemporary caricature wittily conveys the contempt the document was given - and not just by the French, either! In fact, it's issuance may indeed have worsened the French Revolution by giving the impression that the King, Louis XVI, was collaborating with the Prussian and Austrian allied army. (He wasn't - but try and explain that to an angry mob!)]
306 CE - Constantine I was proclaimed Roman Emperor by his troops.
864 CE - By issuing the Edict of Pistres France's so-called 'First King' Charles the Bald ordered defensive measures to be taken against the Vikings.
1547 - Henri II was crowned King of France following the death of his father Francois I.
1567 - Don Diego de Losada founded the city of Santiago de Leon de Caracas - modern-day Caracas, the capital city of Venezuela - after defeating Mariche chief, Tamanaco.
1593 - France's Huguenot King Henri IV publicly converted to Roman Catholicism at the behest of his mistress, Gabrielle d'Estrées.
1792 - The Brunswick Manifesto - principally written by Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé - was issued to the population of Paris, promising vengeance if the French Royal Family was harmed during the ongoing revolution.
1925 - The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) was established.
1934 - Eight Austrian Nazis (including Paul Hudl, Franz Holzweber, Otto Planetta) assassinated Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss in a failed coup attempt known as the July Putsch.
1940 - General Henri Guisan ordered the Swiss Army to resist German invasion and make surrender illegal.
1943 - Benito Mussolini was forced out of office by his own Italian Grand Council; he was replaced by Pietro Badoglio.
1958 - The African Regroupment Party (PRA) held its first congress in Cotonou.
1984 - Salyut 7 cosmonaut Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to perform a space walk.
1993 - Israel launched a massive attack against Lebanon in what the Israelis called Operation Accountability, and the Lebanese called the Seven-Day War.
1994 - Israel and Jordan signed the Washington Declaration, which formally ended the state of war that'd existed between the nations since 1948.
1995 - A gas bottle exploded in the Saint Michel station of line B of the RER (also known as Paris' regional train network) killing eight and wounding 80.
1997 - When K.R. Narayanan was sworn-in as India's 10th president he became the first Dalit - a class formerly known as 'untouchable' - to hold this office.
2000 - Air France Flight 4590 - a Concorde supersonic passenger jet - crashed just after takeoff from Paris' Charles de Gaulle International Airport, killing all 109 aboard and 4 on the ground besides; the accident successfully grounded all remaining Concorde aircraft.
2007 - Pratibha Patil was sworn in as India's first woman president.
2009 - Harry Patch, the last surviving soldier to have served in the trenches in World War I, died aged 111.
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